Smoking increases the risk of cancers of the lungs, mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and cervix. Secondhand smoke increases the risk of cancer among people who live with smokers.
Excessive alcohol intake has been linked to an increased risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver. Alcohol increases hormone levels, thus heightening the risk of hormone-related cancers like breast cancer.
Radiation from excessive exposure to X-rays can cause cancer. Sunlight contains a form of radiation called ultraviolet rays, which penetrate skin cells and may cause mutations that can turn into skin cancer.
Infection with strains of the human papillomavirus can lead to cervical cancer. Hepatitis B and C bacteria can lead to liver cancer. Viruses insert copies of their own DNA into normal body cells, altering the genetic structure of the cell, which promotes cancer.
Exposure to high level of estrogen increases the risk of cancer. The risk is higher for women who begin menstruating early or who go into menopause later. Carrying excess body fat, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy after menopause increases the risk.
Fat tissue produces and stores estrogen, postmenopausal women who are overweight have high estrogen levels, leading to the growth of estrogen-sensitive breast tumors.
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