Colorectal cancer: Methods of Diagnosis
Bowel cancer or the colon cancer in scientific terms is known as colorectal cancer. If this cancer is detected at the early stage, then curing it is an easier method. The first thing here to understand is that, screening of this cancer at the early stage is the best way to start the diagnosis and treatment process.
What are the ways of diagnosis for colorectal cancer?
Screening methods are the best way of diagnosis for this cancer. The Various screening methods are:
Digital Rectal Exam (DRE):
This is the initial screening test and can be useful only if the tumor is large enough to be felt with fingers. In this method, doctor inserts the gloved lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the abnormal growth or area.
FOBT (Fecal Occult Blood Test):
This is the test for the blood in stool. Two type of test is done namely, chemical test and immune chemical test.
There are two types of endoscopy process:
- Colonoscopy: Colonoscope is inserted into the rectum and then polyp structures are searched inside the rectum. The advantage of this method is, along with detecting cancer if polyps are found then they can be removed.
- Sigmoidoscopy: Sigmoidoscope is inserted to rectum and the lower bowel to check for polyps and other abnormality.
Patient’s blood is tested to check the increased levels of few proteins which give an indication of tumor. To be specific, high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in blood shows metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Usually this test can give false results and hence not preferred.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
: This is a 3-Dimensional technology in which a radioactive sugar is injected inside the patient. This sugar gets deposited in tissues with high metabolic activity and the radioactive emission is used for measurement. This test id used for differentiating benign and benign tumors as cancerous cell have high metabolic rate.
Above listed screening test are the best
methods for diagnosis of colorectal cancer
. These methods are commonly used in all the hospitals which specialized for cancer treatments.